Complete Blood Count (CBC/diff) measures the total numbers of red blood cells and white blood cells circulating in the blood. It also details the differential types of white blood cells, the proportion of red blood cells to liquid serum (hematocrit), the amount of hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the blood and the number of platelets which are vital for blood clotting. A CBC is used to evaluate the possibility of anemia, leukemia, clotting disorders, inflammation, infection and dehydration, among other disorders of the red cells, white cells and platelets.
Vitamin D level measures the amount of Vitamin D present in the blood. It is used to rule out Vitamin D deficiency as a cause of bone disease and to aid in the diagnosis of too much calcium in the blood. Values vary with exposure to sunlight and with ovulation during a woman’s menstrual cycle. Many people with type II adult onset diabetes mellitus have low Vitamin D levels.
Testosterone level measures the amount of testosterone in either males or females. In males, it can be used to diagnose disorders of sexual function (impotence) or disorders of the adrenal gland. In women, it can be helpful in diagnosing problems with menstrual cycles, excessive hair growth or other disorders of the adrenal function.
Estrogen level measures the amount of estrogen in either males or females. In females, estrogen analysis may be used in establishing time of ovulation for optimal conception or in diagnosis of the presence of an estrogen producing ovarian tumor in girls and women who do not have menstrual periods.
Progesterone level is used to assess ovarian function, to help determine fertility and whether the placenta is functioning properly in maintaining a pregnancy.
Complete Metabolic Panel includes multiple tests that evaluate kidney and liver function to show how well these organs clean the blood to rid the body of the waste products associated with the various metabolic processes. It also includes a blood glucose (sugar) level which requires that the patient refrain from eating and drinking for 12 hours prior to the test. Only black coffee, tea or water is allowed (no sweeteners or creamers of any kind).
Hepatitis B titer reflects the level of antibodies found in the blood after vaccination with the Hepatitis B vaccine. Ideally, one should take the Hepatitis B series of vaccines at 0, 1 and 6 month intervals and have the blood titer drawn 1-2 months after the third vaccine injection in order to determine if immunity was achieved.
Hepatitis C Antibody is used to assess exposure to Hepatitis C infection. If positive, further testing is advised to verify exposure and possible infection with Hepatitis C virus.
HIV Screen is used to determine if an individual has been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus, the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). If positive, further testing is advised to verify exposure and possible infection with HIV.
Cholesterol Panel (LPP) measures total cholesterol and breaks it down into LDL (bad) and HDL (good) cholesterol levels. It also measures triglycerides and gives an evaluation of your risk for heart attack according to the results given.
Mumps titer is used to determine one’s immunity to the mumps virus, from either history of having the disease or from previous vaccination against the disease.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein secreted by normal, inflamed and/or cancerous prostate gland tissues. An elevation can be indicative of overgrowth of the prostate gland, infection or inflammation of the prostate gland or cancer of the prostate gland. Although an elevation of the PSA is not conclusive evidence of prostate cancer, any elevation in the PSA level must be evaluated by further testing and possible biopsy of the prostate gland in order to determine proper treatment. In men who have had their prostate gland removed due to cancer, regular monitoring of the PSA level is vital in determining reoccurrence of cancerous tissues.
Rubella titer is used to determine one’s immunity to German measles virus, from either history of having the disease or from previous vaccination against the disease. Because German measles infection can cause very serious birth defects in children born to women without immunity, it is vital that women of child-bearing age have either had a positive blood test for rubella immunity or have received the vaccine prior to becoming pregnant for the first time.
Measles titer is used to determine one’s immunity to the Red measles (rubeola) virus, from either history of having the disease or from previous vaccination against the disease.
Measles, Mumps, Rubella titer is a blood test that measures immunity to the three diseases (Red measles, mumps and German measles), with the report giving individual levels of immunity. If any one of these three is insufficient to protect against the specific disease, a collective MMR vaccine booster is the only remedy available in the U.S.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a blood test used to determine thyroid disease, whether low functioning (hypothyroidism) or overactive (hyperthyroidism) due to various causes. TSH testing may be used in conjunction with testing for T3 and T4 levels.
Chickenpox (Varicella) titer is used to determine one’s immunity to chickenpox, from either history of having the disease or from previous vaccination against the disease. If the antibody level is negative, two doses of varicella vaccine given 28 days apart are recommended.
CEA (Carcinogenic Embryonic Antigen) is a blood test used to monitor people with a personal or family history of colorectal cancer. If a positive result is obtained, follow-up with a colonoscopy by a gastroenterologist or oncologist is recommended. If there is no evidence of colorectal cancer on colonoscopy, further testing is recommended as an elevated CEA level has been known to be a marker for other types of cancer, as well.